Medieval Thought

Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan (Clarendon Edition of the Works of

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Four of our PhD students have been awarded fellowships for next year! Russell (Cambridge 2013), 70-91. – Préaux, J., ‘Les quatre vertus païennes et chrétiennes’, Hommages à Marcel Renard, ed. by J. Hugonnard-Roche 1973) De ente et essentia [ca. 1254] De regimine principum (De regno) [ca. 1267] Except where noted, all are available in the critical Leonine edition (ed. 1882-), and all are available in searchable form, along with much else, at the Corpus Thomisticum.
Stories from the Arabian nights

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It is important that Cardano was considered important enough to be still being read in the 17th Century. 1. Fancy, Nahyan, Science and Religion in Mamluk Egypt: Ibn al-Nafîs, Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection (Culture and Civilization in the Middle East 37). He came into conflict with Pope Boniface VIII, one of the most arrogant of medieval Popes, and with Pope Clement V, one of the Royal and Papal Power), both c. 1302,[74] respectively an assertion of Giles argues that the Pope's fullness of power extends to political matters, so that the Pope is the supreme ruler of the world, God's deputy on earth, who delegates power to governments and supervises their activities.
Representation and Objects of Thought in Medieval Philosophy

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To solve the first problem, the Muʿtazilites set out to show that God can be described by many attributes without violating His unity; to solve the second, that, although God is omnipotent and omniscient, man's freedom and, hence, responsibility for his actions are not precluded. According to Aquinas, when natural objects move towards their end, this reveals a natural design that could not have come about through chance, but requires intelligence.
Breaking with Athens: Alfarabi as Founder (Applications of

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Students in the program will pursue a PhD in either Philosophy or Classical Studies and an MA in the companion field. In the United States Josiah Royce advanced similar views. Buddhism emphasized seeking nirvana--a spiritual no-thing that is Everything--and Jainism emphasized strict discipline and denial in order to obtain spiritual grace. According to Ockham, everything that exist should be logically independent from everything else. Zonta, Mauro, Saggio di lessicografia filosofica araba (Philosophica 7).
The Visible and Invisible in Pianoforte Technique: Being a

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Philosophy of law (often called jurisprudence ) explores the varying theories explaining the nature and interpretation of laws. He writes: I do not know how the [skeptical] Academician can refute him who says �I know that this appears white to me, I know that my hearing is delighted with this, I know that this has an agreeable odor, I know that this tastes sweet to me, I know that this feels cold to me.� [Ibid 3:11] ����������� These areas of knowledge, then, seem to be completely indisputable because of the self-evident nature of their specific truths.
Dante And Catholic Philosophy In The Thirteenth Century

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New nations were about to overrun the Roman Empire and its Hellenistic culture with long-range effects: when, centuries later, for example, one of the great Scholastics, St. Mullâ Sadrâ, The Book of Metaphysical Penetrations, A Parallel English-Arabic text transl. by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, edited, introduced, and annotated by Ibrahim Kalin (Islamic Translation Series). According to this system, everything that is "matter" is deterministic and natural—and so belongs to natural philosophy—and everything that is "mind" is volitional and non-natural, and falls outside the domain of philosophy of nature.
Reid and His French Disciples: Aesthetics and Metaphysics

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Thomas Aquinas on the Principles of Nature. 20. Sometimes we take nature for the universe, or system of the corporeal works of God, as when it is said of a phoenix, or a chimera, that there is no such thing in nature, i.e. in the world. First, under the older sun-centered system, the universe was of finite size: at the outer edges all the stars were attached to a single orbital sphere that rotated around the earth at its inner core.
St. Thomas Aquinas: "The Dumb Ox"

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It gives a lucid and engaging account of the history of philosophy in the Middle Ages, discussing the main writers and ideas, the social and intellectual contexts, and the important concepts used in medieval philosophy. The end of the fifteenth quarter (normally, spring of the fifth year): Students who do not meet the above expectations may not be permitted to continue in the program. The pivot round which the whole of Muslim life turns is, of course, the Qur’an. Hence, the first just men were established as shepherds of flocks, rather than as kings of men” (City of God, XIX.15, p. 942).[8] He goes on to say that slavery is a just punishment for sin, and that servi are so called On property, Gratian's Decretum[9] included a passage from Ambrose: property without interfering with other people's?’ O impudent words! ...
Treatise On Law (STUDIES LAW & CONTEM)

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Besides his strictly medical knowledge, Galen wrote a treatise called On the Passions and Errors of the Soul. Knowledge of reality is, in his understanding, the prerequisite for contemplation; each of the seven liberal arts aims “to restore God’s image in us.” “Learn everything,” he urged; “later you will see that nothing is superfluous.” It was on this basis that the university—which was not the least of the achievements of medieval Scholasticism—was to take shape.
Medicine and the Seven Deadly Sins in Late Medieval

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We can�t truly say that time is, then, except because it tends towards non-being. [Ibid] It is as though everything that occurs will instantly evaporate with the passing of the present moment. ����������� The extent to which the past and future are real at all, they must be embedded in the present moment�since the present is all that really exists: It is now plain and evident that neither future nor past things exist. However, men were dissatisfied and produced civilizations to gain further possessions.